Josip Broz Tito
14 January 1953 – 4 May 1980
|Prime Minister|| Himself (1953–1963)|
Petar Stambolić (1963–1967)
Mika Špiljak (1967–1969)
Mitja Ribičič (1969–1971)
Džemal Bijedić (1971–1977)
Veselin Đuranović (1977–1980)
|Vice President|| Aleksandar Ranković (1963–1966)|
Koča Popović (1966–1967)
|Preceded by|| Ivan Ribar|
(as President of the Presidency of the People's Assembly)
|Succeeded by|| Lazar Koliševski|
(as President of the Presidency)
2 November 1944 – 29 June 1963
|Preceded by||Ivan Šubašić|
|Succeeded by||Petar Stambolić|
1 September 1961 – 5 October 1964
|Preceded by||Position created|
|Succeeded by||Gamal Abdel Nasser|
Minister of Defense of Yugoslavia
7 March 1945 – 14 January 1953
|Preceded by||Ivan Šubašić|
|Succeeded by|| Ivan Gošnjak|
(as Federal Secretary of National Defense)
5 January 1939 – 4 May 1980
|Preceded by||Milan Gorkić|
|Succeeded by||Branko Mikulić|
|Born|| 7 May 1892|
Kumrovec, Croatia-Slavonia, Austria-Hungary
|Died|| 4 May 1980 (aged 87)|
Ljubljana, SR Slovenia, SFR Yugoslavia
|Resting place|| House of Flowers, Belgrade, Serbia|
|Political party|| SKJ|
|Spouse|| Pelagija Broz (1920–1939), divorced|
Herta Haas (1940–1943)
Jovanka Broz (1952–1980)
|Domestic partner||Davorjanka Paunović|
|Children|| Zlatica Broz|
Žarko Leon Broz
|Occupation||Machinist, revolutionary, resistance commander, statesman|
|Service/branch|| Austro-Hungarian Army|
Yugoslav People's Army
|Years of service|| 1913–1915|
Yugoslav People's Army (supreme commander)
|Battles/wars|| First World War|
Russian Civil War
Second World War
|Awards|| 98 international and 21 Yugoslav decorations, including|
Order of the Yugoslav Star
Legion of Honour
Order of the Bath
Order of Lenin
Order of Merit of Italy
(short list below, full list in the article)
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз, Template:IPA-sh; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (//; Cyrillic: Тито, Template:IPA-sh), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980. During World War II, he was the leader of the Partisans, often regarded as the most effective resistance movement in occupied Europe. While his presidency has been criticized as authoritarianTemplate:Sfn and concerns about the repression of political opponents have been raised, some historians consider him a benevolent dictator. He was a popular public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad. Viewed as a unifying symbol, his internal policies maintained the peaceful coexistence of the nations of the Yugoslav federation. He gained further international attention as the chief leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, alongside Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Sukarno of Indonesia, and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana.
Broz was born to a Croat father and Slovene mother in the village of Kumrovec, Austria-Hungary (now in Croatia). Drafted into military service, he distinguished himself, becoming the youngest sergeant major in the Austro-Hungarian Army of that time. After being seriously wounded and captured by the Imperial Russians during World War I, he was sent to a work camp in the Ural Mountains. He participated in some events of the Russian Revolution in 1917 and subsequent Civil War. Upon his return home, Broz found himself in the newly established Kingdom of Yugoslavia, where he joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ).
He was General Secretary (later Chairman of the Presidium) of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (1939–1980) and went on to lead the World War II Yugoslav guerrilla movement, the Partisans (1941–1945). After the war, he was the Prime Minister (1944–1963), President (later President for Life) (1953–1980) of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). From 1943 to his death in 1980, he held the rank of Marshal of Yugoslavia, serving as the supreme commander of the Yugoslav military, the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA). With a highly favourable reputation abroad in both Cold War blocs, he received some 98 foreign decorations, including the Legion of Honour and the Order of the Bath.
Tito was the chief architect of the second Yugoslavia, a socialist federation that lasted from November 1942 until April 1992. Despite being one of the founders of Cominform, he became the first Cominform member to defy Soviet hegemony in 1948 and the only one in Joseph Stalin's time to manage to leave Cominform and begin with its own socialist program with elements of market socialism. Economists active in the former Yugoslavia, including Czech-born Jaroslav Vanek and Croat-born Branko Horvat, promoted a model of market socialism dubbed the Illyrian model, where firms were socially owned by their employees and structured on workers' self-management and competed with each other in open and free markets.
- ↑ "Tito". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
- ↑ "Josip Broz Tito". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/597295/Josip-Broz-Tito. Retrieved on 27 April 2010.
- ↑ Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones (13 June 2013). In Spies We Trust: The Story of Western Intelligence. OUP Oxford. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-19-958097-2. https://books.google.com/books?id=3gK7e8LpXvcC&pg=PA87.
- ↑ Andjelic, Neven (2003). Bosnia-Herzegovina: The End of a Legacy. Frank Cass. p. 36. ISBN 0-7146-5485-X.
- ↑ Shapiro, Susan; Shapiro, Ronald (2004). The Curtain Rises: Oral Histories of the Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1672-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=oCqWFQ1WKlkC&pg=PA180.
"...All Yugoslavs had educational opportunities, jobs, food, and housing regardless of nationality. Tito, seen by most as a benevolent dictator, brought peaceful co-existence to the Balkan region, a region historically synonymous with factionalism."
- ↑ Melissa Katherine Bokovoy, Jill A. Irvine, Carol S. Lilly, State-society relations in Yugoslavia, 1945–1992; Palgrave Macmillan, 1997 p. 36 Template:ISBN
"...Of course, Tito was a popular figure, both in Yugoslavia and outside it."
- ↑ Martha L. Cottam, Beth Dietz-Uhler, Elena Mastors, Thomas Preston, Introduction to political psychology, Psychology Press, 2009 p. 243 Template:ISBN
"...Tito himself became a unifying symbol. He was charismatic and very popular among the citizens of Yugoslavia."
- ↑ Peter Willetts, The non-aligned movement: the origins of a Third World alliance (1978) p. xiv
- ↑ Bremmer, Ian (2007). The J Curve: A New Way to Understand Why Nations Rise and Fall. Simon & Schuster. p. 175. ISBN 0-7432-7472-5.